Power of UPSC : Union Public Service Commission is commonly abbreviated for UPSC. It is a national recruitment body that recruits various central government civil servants. UPSC is responsible for conducting exams and recruiting for Group A and Group B civil services cadres and defense services cadres.
UPSC is responsible for recruiting and conducting exams at both union and state levels. 24 exams are conducted by UPSC. The working of our nation is not only in the hands of the government, the civil servants also play an important role. Hence, the examination, recruitment, training, conditions of service, etc have equal importance.
So given the situation, the makers of the constitution made it a constitutional body. The commission is independent of all political influence and interference. The commission is mentioned in the constitution. It means the commission is given constitutional validity.
This is done so that the commission can function without political influence. It also ensures the commission’s safety from the encroachment of its authorities, powers, and duties. This helps in the unhindered functioning of the commission.
History of UPSC
When the Britishers took control of the nation, civil servants were selected by the company’s directors. The chosen individuals were then sent to Haileybury College in London for training.
After training was complete they were sent back to India. In 1854, following Master Macaulay’s Report of the Select Panel, a cutting edge merit-based arrangement of common administrations was presented in India. The parliament of London decided to abandon the company’s way of selecting individuals.
For this purpose, the Civil Service Commission was set up in London in 1854 and started in 1855. Initially, the exams were conducted in London only. The maximum age limit for the examination was 23 years old, and the minimum age was 18 years. The syllabus was designed in such a way that Europeans would have an upper hand in the examination.
The exams were initially designed to only support Europeans so that they would easily get the post. The British did not want Indians to be educated and holding government offices. So the exams were designed to the whims of the British. Even after these restrictions and setbacks in 1864, the first Indian succeeded in clearing the exams.
He was Satyendranath Tagore, brother of Rabindranath Tagore. Indians petitioned for the exams to be held in India, but their requests were not heard. They were only heard after the First World War, and Montagu- Chelmsford reform. From 1922, the exams began to be held in India.
The origin of the Public Services Commission can be found in the First Dispatch of the Government of India on the Indian Constitutional Reforms on the 5th March 1919. It mentioned the setting up of a permanent body in charge of the matters of civil services.
Even after several attempts, no result came and no permanent body was formed. In 1924, The Lee Commission, in its report suggested the Public Service Commission should be established without any delay. Finally in1926 the public Service Commission was set up in India.
In April 1935 the Commission was renamed the Federal Public Service Commission. This was only for a short period. After India gained independence in 1947, the commission was renamed the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).
Composition of Union Public Service System
For more elevated level common administrations, the constitution accommodates the setting up of the Association Public Assistance Commission. The number of members on the committee is decided by the President of India. It has since been decided that there should be between six or eight members.
The Constitution provides that at least half of the members of the commission should have served for at least ten years under the Government of India or any state government.The President delegates the individuals from the commission. A member of the commission holds the office for either six years, or until he/she reaches the age of sixty years, whichever is earlier.
The chairman of the commission will not be eligible for any other government job after his/ her period ends. But the other members are eligible for the post of chairman under the union of state civil service commissions.
The chairman or any member of the commission can be removed by the president, on the grounds of misbehavior, if he/she is found holding an office of profit or is employed somewhere outside the commission. They can also be removed if they are proven mentally or physically incompetent.
The pay and allowances are also set up by the government and cannot be done to the member’s disadvantage after being nominated for the post.
Functions of Union Public Service System
The commission must advise the government in all matters relating to training, recruitment, and promotion, etc. They conduct examinations for 24 civil services. They have to advise the government on disciplinary matters affecting the civil servants. They advise on the suitability of candidates.
They also have to present an annual report to the President on the work done by the commission. They also have presented a report on all the matters they have consulted and recommendations provided to the government to the parliament. This way the government is responsible and answerable as to why they did not take the recommendations by the commission.